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Chapter 8: Advanced Views and URLconfs
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第八章 高级视图和URL配置
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3596天前 翻译
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In Chapter 3, we explained the basics of Django view functions and URLconfs. This chapter goes into
more detail about advanced functionality in those two pieces of the framework.
第三章,我们讲到DJANGO基本的视图功能和URL配置,这一章将涉及更多细节和高级功能。
1535天前 翻译
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URLconf Tricks
``````````````
URLconf 技巧
``````````````
3590天前 翻译
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Theres nothing special about URLconfs like anything else in Django, theyre just Python code. You
can take advantage of this in several ways, as described in the sections that follow.
psiOnM  <a href="http://nbrzcxnliggw.com/">nbrzcxnliggw</a>, [url=http://nbeqcslpbjht.com/]nbeqcslpbjht[/url], [link=http://xmxroewwggzy.com/]xmxroewwggzy[/link], http://nabarnvmapgz.com/
2190天前 Lele 翻译
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Streamlining Function Imports
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Yfphr6  <a href="http://wkchavkykyhr.com/">wkchavkykyhr</a>, [url=http://muokhwblpfjl.com/]muokhwblpfjl[/url], [link=http://ploxqieojkeb.com/]ploxqieojkeb[/link], http://xhutfvdzimfx.com/
2198天前 翻译
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Consider this URLconf, which builds on the example in Chapter 3:
看下这个 URLconf,它是建立在第三章的例子上:
316天前 翻译
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As explained in Chapter 3, each entry in the URLconf includes its associated view function, passed
directly as a function object. This means its necessary to import the view functions at the top of
the module.
正如第三章中所解释的,在 URLconf 中的每一个入口包括了它所联系的视图函数,直接传入了一个函数对象。这就意味着需要在模块开始处导入视图函数。
3590天前 翻译
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But as a Django application grows in complexity, its URLconf grows, too, and keeping those imports
can be tedious to manage. (For each new view function, you have to remember to import it, and the
import statement tends to get overly long if you use this approach.) Its possible to avoid that
tedium by importing the ``views`` module itself. This example URLconf is equivalent to the previous
one:
但随着 Django 应用变得复杂,它的 URLconf 也在增长,并且维护这些导入可能使得管理变麻烦。(对每个新的view函数,你不得不记住要导入它,并且如果采用这种方法导入语句将变得相当长。)有可能通过导入 ``views`` 模块本身来避免这个麻烦。这个 URLconf 示例同上一个是等价的:
3590天前 Aneisha 翻译
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Django offers another way of specifying the view function for a particular pattern in the URLconf:
you can pass a string containing the module name and function name rather than the function object
itself. Continuing the ongoing example:
Django 还提供了另一种方法可以在 URLconf 中为某个特别的模式指定视图函数:你可以传入一个包含模块名和函数名的字符串,而不是函数对象本身。继续示例:
316天前 翻译
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(Note the quotes around the view names. Were using ``'mysite.views.current_datetime'`` with quotes
instead of ``mysite.views.current_datetime`` .)
(注意视图名前后的引号。应该使用带引号的 ``'mysite.views.current_datetime'`` 而不是 ``mysite.views.current_datetime`` 。)
1855天前 Deandre 翻译
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Using this technique, its no longer necessary to import the view functions; Django automatically
imports the appropriate view function the first time its needed, according to the string describing
the name and path of the view function.
使用这个技术,就不必导入视图函数了;Django 会在第一次需要它时导入合适的视图函数,根据字符串所描述的视图函数的名字和路径。
3589天前 翻译
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A further shortcut you can take when using the string technique is to factor out a common view
prefix. In our URLconf example, each of the view strings starts with ``'mysite.views'`` , which is
redundant to type. We can factor out that common prefix and pass it as the first argument to
``patterns()`` , like this:
当使用字符串技术时,你可以采用更简化的方式:提取出一个公共视图前缀。在我们的 URLconf 例子中,每一个视图字符串都是以 ``'mysite.views'`` 开始的,造成过多的输入。我们可以提取出公共前缀然后把它作为第一个参数传给 ``patterns()`` ,如:
3588天前 翻译
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Note that you dont put a trailing dot (``"."`` ) in the prefix, nor do you put a leading dot in the
view strings. Django puts those in automatically.
注意既不要在前缀后面跟着一个点号(``"."`` ),也不要在视图字符串前面放一个点号。 Django 会自动处理它们。
3588天前 翻译
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With these two approaches in mind, which is better? It really depends on your personal coding style
and needs.
牢记这两种方法,哪种更好一些呢?这取决于你的个人编码习惯和需要。
1553天前 翻译
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Advantages of the string approach are as follows:
字符串方法的好处如下:
1856天前 翻译
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*   Its more compact, because it doesnt require you to import the view functions.
N9gqns  <a href="http://wteejridtwke.com/">wteejridtwke</a>, [url=http://lxotonbmgclb.com/]lxotonbmgclb[/url], [link=http://hkhsettjexoq.com/]hkhsettjexoq[/link], http://dlapxtivyork.com/
2198天前 Xadrian 翻译
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*   It results in more readable and manageable URLconfs if your view functions are spread across
    several different Python modules.
*   如果你的视图函数存在于几个不同的 Python 模块的话,它可以使得 URLconf 更易读和管理。
316天前 翻译
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Advantages of the function object approach are as follows:
WdAon8  <a href="http://gnuhdlcakrdi.com/">gnuhdlcakrdi</a>, [url=http://mkbdhjkqvlqt.com/]mkbdhjkqvlqt[/url], [link=http://rdpcyyxxithz.com/]rdpcyyxxithz[/link], http://rsbyearxigne.com/
2190天前 翻译
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*   It allows for easy wrapping of view functions. See the section Wrapping View Functions later in
    this chapter.
*   更容易对视图函数进行包装(wrap)。参见本章后面的《包装视图函数》一节。
1848天前 Etta 翻译
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*   Its more Pythonic that is, its more in line with Python traditions, such as passing functions
    as objects.
*   更 Pythonic,更符合 Python 的传统,如把函数当成对象传递。
316天前 翻译
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Both approaches are valid, and you can even mix them within the same URLconf. The choice is yours.
两个方法都是有效的,甚至你可以在同一个 URLconf 中混用它们。决定权在你。
3588天前 翻译
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Using Multiple View Prefixes
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使用多个视图前缀
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3588天前 翻译
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In practice, if you use the string technique, youll probably end up mixing views to the point where
the views in your URLconf wont have a common prefix. However, you can still take advantage of the
view prefix shortcut to remove duplication. Just add multiple ``patterns()`` objects together, like
this:
在实践中,如果你使用字符串技术,特别是当你的 URLconf 中没有一个公共前缀时,你最终可能混合视图。然而,你仍然可以利用视图前缀的简便方式来减少重复。只要增加多个 ``patterns()`` 对象,象这样:
1854天前 翻译
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Old:
旧的:
316天前 翻译
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New:
新的:
316天前 翻译
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All the framework cares about is that theres a module-level variable called ``urlpatterns`` . This
variable can be constructed dynamically, as we do in this example.
整个框架关注的是存在一个名为 ``urlpatterns`` 的模块级别的变量。这个变量可以动态构建,正如本例中我们所做的一样。
316天前 翻译
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Special-Casing URLs in Debug Mode
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调试模式中的特例
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316天前 翻译
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Speaking of constructing ``urlpatterns`` dynamically, you might want to take advantage of this
technique to alter your URLconfs behavior while in Djangos debug mode. To do this, just check the
value of the ``DEBUG`` setting at runtime, like so:
当谈到动态构建 ``urlpatterns`` 时,你可能想利用这一技术,在 Django 的调试模式时,来修改 URLconf 的行为。为了做到这一点,只要在运行时检查 ``DEBUG`` 配置项的值即可,如:
316天前 翻译
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In this example, the URL ``/debuginfo/`` will only be available if your ``DEBUG`` setting is set to
``True`` .
在这个例子中,URL ``/debuginfo/`` 将只有在你的 ``DEBUG`` 配置项设为 ``True`` 时才有效。
3588天前 Lily 翻译
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Using Named Groups
''''''''''''''''''
使用命名组
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3588天前 翻译
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In all of our URLconf examples so far, weve used simple, *non-named* regular expression groups that
is, we put parentheses around parts of the URL we wanted to capture, and Django passes that
captured text to the view function as a positional argument. In more advanced usage, its possible
to use *named* regular expression groups to capture URL bits and pass them as *keyword* arguments
to a view.
到目前为止,在所有 URLconf 例子中,我们使用的很简单,即 *无命名* 正则表达式组,在我们想要捕获的URL部分上加上小括号,Django 会将捕获的文本作为位置参数传递给视图函数。在更高级的用法中,还可以使用 *命名* 正则表达式组来捕获URL,并且将其作为 *关键字* 参数传给视图。
3583天前 Morrie 翻译
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Keyword Arguments vs. Positional Arguments
关键字参数 对比 位置参数
1579天前 翻译
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A Python function can be called using keyword arguments or positional arguments and, in some cases,
both at the same time. In a keyword argument call, you specify the names of the arguments along
with the values youre passing. In a positional argument call, you simply pass the arguments without
explicitly specifying which argument matches which value; the association is implicit in the
arguments order.
一个 Python 函数可以使用关键字参数或位置参数来调用,在某些情况下,可以同时进行使用。在关键字参数调用中,你要指定参数的名字和传入的值。在位置参数调用中,你只需传入参数,不需要明确指明哪个参数与哪个值对应,它们的对应关系隐含在参数的顺序中。
1856天前 翻译
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For example, consider this simple function:
例如,考虑这个简单的函数:
1525天前 翻译
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To call it with positional arguments, you specify the arguments in the order in which theyre listed
in the function definition:
为了使用位置参数来调用它,你要按照在函数定义中的顺序来指定参数。
3583天前 Marilu 翻译
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To call it with keyword arguments, you specify the names of the arguments along with the values.
The following statements are equivalent:
为了使用关键字参数来调用它,你要指定参数名和值。下面的语句是等价的:
3583天前 Zavrina 翻译
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Finally, you can mix keyword and positional arguments, as long as all positional arguments are
listed before keyword arguments. The following statements are equivalent to the previous examples:
最后,你可以混合关键字和位置参数,只要所有的位置参数列在关键字参数之前。下面的语句与前面的例子是等价:
3583天前 Wilhelmina 翻译
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In Python regular expressions, the syntax for named regular expression groups is
``(?P<name>pattern)`` , where ``name`` is the name of the group and ``pattern`` is some pattern to
match.
在 Python 正则表达式中,命名的正则表达式组的语法是 ``(?P<name>pattern)`` ,这里 ``name`` 是组的名字,而 ``pattern`` 是匹配的某个模式。
316天前 翻译
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Heres an example URLconf that uses non-named groups:
下面是一个使用无名组的 URLconf 的例子:
316天前 翻译
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Heres the same URLconf, rewritten to use named groups:
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2190天前 Kristabelle 翻译
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This accomplishes exactly the same thing as the previous example, with one subtle difference: the
captured values are passed to view functions as keyword arguments rather than positional arguments.
这段代码和前面的功能完全一样,只有一个细微的差别:把提取的值用命名参数的方式
传递给视图函数,而不是用按顺序的匿名参数的方式。
316天前 翻译
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For example, with non-named groups, a request to ``/articles/2006/03/`` would result in a function
call equivalent to this:
例如,如果不带命名组,请求 ``/articles/2006/03/`` 将会
等于这样的函数调用:
1566天前 翻译
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With named groups, though, the same request would result in this function call:
而带命名组,同样的请求就是这样的函数调用:
317天前 翻译
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In practice, using named groups makes your URLconfs slightly more explicit and less prone to
argument-order bugs and you can reorder the arguments in your views function definitions. Following
the preceding example, if we wanted to change the URLs to include the month *before* the year, and
we were using non-named groups, wed have to remember to change the order of arguments in the
``month_archive`` view. If we were using named groups, changing the order of the captured
parameters in the URL would have no effect on the view.
使用命名组可以让你的URLconfs更加清晰,减少参数次序可能搞混的潜在BUG,还可以
让你在函数定义中对参数重新排序。接着上面这个例子,如果我们想修改URL把月份放到
年份的 *前面* ,而不使用命名组的话,我们就不得不去修改视图 ``month_archive``
的参数次序。如果我们使用命名组的话,修改URL里提取参数的次序对视图没有影响。
3579天前 翻译
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Of course, the benefits of named groups come at the cost of brevity; some developers find the
named-group syntax ugly and too verbose. Still, another advantage of named groups is readability,
especially by those who arent intimately familiar with regular expressions or your particular
Django application. Its easier to see whats happening, at a glance, in a URLconf that uses named
groups.
当然,命名组的代价就是失去了简洁性:一些开发者觉得命名组的语法丑陋和显得冗余。
命名组的另一个好处就是可读性强,特别是熟悉正则表达式或自己开发的Django
应用的开发者。看一眼URLconf里的这些命名组就知道这是干什么用的了。
3560天前 Mellie 翻译
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Understanding the Matching/Grouping Algorithm
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理解匹配/分组算法
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3382天前 翻译
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A caveat with using named groups in a URLconf is that a single URLconf pattern cannot contain both
named and non-named groups. If you do this, Django wont throw any errors, but youll probably find
that your URLs arent matching as you expect. Specifically, heres the algorithm the URLconf parser
follows, with respect to named groups vs. non-named groups in a regular expression:
需要注意的是如果在URLconf中使用命名组,那么命名组和非命名组是不能同时存在于同一个URLconf的模式中的。如果你这样做,Django不会抛出任何错误,但你可能会发现你的URL并没有像你预想的那样匹配正确。具体地,以下是URLconf解释器有关正则表达式中命名组和非命名组所遵循的算法。
1788天前 Marlee 翻译
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*   If there are any named arguments, it will use those, ignoring non-named arguments.
*   如果有任何命名的组,Django会忽略非命名组而直接使用命名组。
1856天前 翻译
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*   Otherwise, it will pass all non-named arguments as positional arguments.
*  否则,Django会把所有非命名组以位置参数的形式传递。
316天前 翻译
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*   In both cases, it will pass any extra options as keyword arguments. See the next section for
    more information.
*  在以上的两种情况,Django同时会以关键字参数的方式传递一些额外参数。更具体的信息可参考下一节。
1295天前 翻译
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Passing Extra Options to View Functions
'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
传递额外的参数到视图函数中
1423天前 Stone 翻译
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Sometimes youll find yourself writing view functions that are quite similar, with only a few small
differences. For example, say you have two views whose contents are identical except for the
template they use:
有时你会发现你写的视图函数是十分类似的,只有一点点的不同。比如说,你有两个视图,它们的内容是一致的,除了它们所用的模板不太一样:
1423天前 翻译
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Were repeating ourselves in this code, and thats inelegant. At first, you may think to remove the
redundancy by using the same view for both URLs, putting parentheses around the URL to capture it,
and checking the URL within the view to determine the template, like so:
我们在这代码里面做了重复的工作,不够简练。起初你可能会想,通过对两个URL都试用同样的视图,在URL中使用括号捕捉请求,然后在视图中检查并决定使用哪个模板来去除代码的冗余,就像这样:
316天前 翻译
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The problem with that solution, though, is that it couples your URLs to your code. If you decide to
rename ``/foo/`` to ``/fooey/`` , youll have to remember to change the view code.
这种解决方案的问题还是老缺点,就是把你的URL耦合进你的代码里面了。如果你打算把 ``/foo/`` 改成 ``/fooey/`` 的话,那么你就得记住要去改变视图里面的代码。
317天前 翻译
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The elegant solution involves an optional URLconf parameter. Each pattern in a URLconf may include
a third item: a dictionary of keyword arguments to pass to the view function.
优雅的解决方法:使用一个额外的URLconf参数。一个URLconf里面的每一个模式可以包含第三个数据:一个传到视图函数中的关键字参数的字典。
316天前 翻译
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With this in mind, we can rewrite our ongoing example like this:
有了这个概念以后,我们就可以把我们现在的例子改写成这样:
316天前 翻译
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As you can see, the URLconf in this example specifies ``template_name`` in the URLconf. The view
function treats it as just another parameter.
如你所见,这个例子中,URLconf指定了 ``template_name`` 。而视图函数则会把它处理成另一个参数而已。
1423天前 Lucky 翻译
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This extra URLconf options technique is a nice way of sending additional information to your view
functions with minimal fuss. As such, its used by a couple of Djangos bundled applications, most
notably its generic views system, which we cover in Chapter 9.
这额外的URLconf参数的技术以最少的麻烦给你提供了向视图函数传递额外信息的一个好方法。正因如此,这技术已被很多Django的捆绑应用使用,其中以我们将会在第9章讨论的通用视图系统最为明显。
1423天前 Kairi 翻译
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The following sections contain a couple of ideas on how you can use the extra URLconf options
technique in your own projects.
下面的几节里面有一些关于你可以怎样把额外URLconf参数技术应用到你自己的工程的建议。
1423天前 翻译
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Faking Captured URLconf Values
..............................
下面的几节里面有一些关于你可以怎样把额外URLconf参数技术应用到你自己的工程的建议。
1423天前 翻译
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Say you have a set of views that match a pattern, along with another URL that doesnt fit the
pattern but whose view logic is the same. In this case, you can fake the capturing of URL values by
using extra URLconf options to handle that extra URL with the same view.
比如说你有匹配某个模式的一堆视图,以及一个并不匹配这个模式的但它的视图逻辑是一样的URL。这种情况下,你可以伪造URL值的捕捉。这主要通过使用额外URLconf参数,使得这个多出来的URL使用同一个视图。
1607天前 Beyonce 翻译
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For example, you might have an application that displays some data for a particular day, with URLs
such as these:
例如,你可能有一个显示某一个特定日子的某些数据的应用,URL类似这样的:
3564天前 翻译
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This is simple enough to deal with you can capture those in a URLconf like this (using named group
syntax):
这太简单了,你可以在一个URLconf中捕捉这些值,像这样(使用命名组的方法):
1712天前 Namari 翻译
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And the view function signature would look like this:
然后视图函数的原型看起来会是:
1840天前 翻译
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This approach is straightforward its nothing you havent seen before. The trick comes in when you
want to add another URL that uses ``my_view`` but whose URL doesnt include a ``month`` and/or
``day`` .
这种解决方案很直接,没有用到什么你没见过的技术。问题在于当你想为添加一个使用  ``my_view`` 视图的URL但它没有包含一个 ``month`` 和/或者 一个 ``day`` 。
1856天前 Dilly 翻译
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For example, you might want to add another URL, ``/mydata/birthday/`` , which would be equivalent
to ``/mydata/jan/06/`` . You can take advantage of extra URLconf options like so:
比如你可能会想增加这样一个URL, ``/mydata/birthday/`` , 这个URL等价于 ``/mydata/jan/06/`` 。这时你可以这样利用额外URLconf参数:
1840天前 翻译
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The cool thing here is that you dont have to change your view function at all. The view function
only cares that it *gets* ``month`` and ``day`` parameters it doesnt matter whether they come from
the URL capturing itself or extra parameters.
在这里最帅的地方莫过于你根本不用改变你的视图函数。视图函数只会关心它 *获得* 了 ``month`` 和 ``day`` 参数,它不会去管这些参数到底是捕捉回来的还是被额外提供的。
3389天前 Sandy 翻译
111#翻译
Making a View Generic
.....................
创建一个通用视图
.....................
3564天前 Conyers 翻译
112#翻译
Its good programming practice to factor out commonalities in code. For example, with these two
Python functions:
抽取出我们代码中共性的东西是一个很好的编程习惯。比如,像以下的两个Python函数:
3437天前 翻译
115#翻译
we can factor out the greeting to make it a parameter:
我们可以把问候语提取出来变成一个参数:
3564天前 翻译
118#翻译
You can apply this same philosophy to your Django views by using extra URLconf parameters.
通过使用额外的URLconf参数,你可以把同样的思想应用到Django的视图中。
316天前 翻译
119#翻译
With this in mind, you can start making higher-level abstractions of your views. Instead of
thinking to yourself, This view displays a list of ``Event`` objects, and That view displays a list
of ``BlogEntry`` objects, realize theyre both specific cases of A view that displays a list of
objects, where the type of object is variable.
了解这个以后,你可以开始创作高抽象的视图。更具体地说,比如这个视图显示一系列的 ``Event`` 对象,那个视图显示一系列的 ``BlogEntry`` 对象,并意识到它们都是一个用来显示一系列对象的视图的特例,而对象的类型其实就是一个变量。
315天前 Libby 翻译
120#翻译
Take this code, for example:
以这段代码作为例子:
3564天前 翻译
123#翻译
The two views do essentially the same thing: they display a list of objects. So lets factor out the
type of object theyre displaying:
这两个视图做的事情实质上是一样的:显示一系列的对象。让我们把它们显示的对象的类型抽象出来:
1857天前 翻译
126#翻译
With those small changes, we suddenly have a reusable, model-agnostic view! From now on, anytime we
need a view that lists a set of objects, we can simply reuse this ``object_list`` view rather than
writing view code. Here are a couple of notes about what we did:
就这样小小的改动,我们突然发现我们有了一个可复用的,模型无关的视图!从现在开始,当我们需要一个视图来显示一系列的对象时,我们可以简简单单的重用这一个 ``object_list`` 视图,而无须另外写视图代码了。以下是我们做过的事情:
3532天前 翻译
127#翻译
*   Were passing the model classes directly, as the ``model`` parameter. The dictionary of extra
    URLconf options can pass any type of Python object not just strings.
*   我们通过 ``model`` 参数直接传递了模型类。额外URLconf参数的字典是可以传递任何类型的对象,而不仅仅只是字符串。
3532天前 翻译
128#翻译
*   The ``model.objects.all()`` line is an example of *duck typing* : If it walks like a duck and
    talks like a duck, we can treat it like a duck. Note the code doesnt know what type of object
    ``model`` is; the only requirement is that ``model`` have an ``objects`` attribute, which in
    turn has an ``all()`` method.
*   这一行: ``model.objects.all()`` 是 *鸭子界定* (原文:duck typing,是计算机科学中一种动态类型判断的概念)的一个例子:如果一只鸟走起来像鸭子,叫起来像鸭子,那我们就可以把它当作是鸭子了。需要注意的是代码并不知道 ``model`` 对象的类型是什么;它只要求 ``model`` 有一个 ``objects`` 属性,而这个属性有一个 ``all()`` 方法。
316天前 翻译
129#翻译
*   Were using ``model.__name__.lower()`` in determining the template name. Every Python class has
    a ``__name__`` attribute that returns the class name. This feature is useful at times like
    this, when we dont know the type of class until runtime. For example, the ``BlogEntry`` classs
    ``__name__`` is the string ``'BlogEntry'`` .
*   我们使用 ``model.__name__.lower()`` 来决定模板的名字。每个Python的类都有一个 ``__name__`` 属性返回类名。这特性在当我们直到运行时刻才知道对象类型的这种情况下很有用。比如, ``BlogEntry``  类的  ``__name__`` 就是字符串 ``'BlogEntry'`` 。
3532天前 翻译
130#翻译
*   In a slight difference between this example and the previous example, were passing the generic
    variable name ``object_list`` to the template. We could easily change this variable name to be
    ``blogentry_list`` or ``event_list`` , but weve left that as an exercise for the reader.
*   这个例子与前面的例子稍有不同,我们传递了一个通用的变量名给模板。当然我们可以轻易的把这个变量名改成 ``blogentry_list`` 或者 ``event_list`` ,不过我们打算把这当作练习留给读者。
316天前 翻译
131#翻译
Because database-driven Web sites have several common patterns, Django comes with a set of generic
views that use this exact technique to save you time. We cover Djangos built-in generic views in
the next chapter.
因为数据库驱动的网站都有一些通用的模式,Django提供了一个通用视图的集合,使用它可以节省你的时间。我们将会在下一章讲讲Django的内置通用视图。
3564天前 翻译
132#翻译
Giving a View Configuration Options
...................................
提供视图配置选项
...................................
3564天前 翻译
133#翻译
If youre distributing a Django application, chances are that your users will want some degree of
configuration. In this case, its a good idea to add hooks to your views for any configuration
options you think people may want to change. You can use extra URLconf parameters for this purpose.
如果你发布一个Django的应用,你的用户可能会希望配置上能有些自由度。这种情况下,为你认为用户可能希望改变的配置选项添加一些钩子到你的视图中会是一个很好的主意。你可以用额外URLconf参数实现。
3270天前 翻译
134#翻译
A common bit of an application to make configurable is the template name:
一个应用中比较常见的可供配置代码是模板名字:
317天前 翻译
137#翻译
Understanding Precedence of Captured Values vs. Extra Options
.............................................................
了解捕捉值和额外参数之间的优先级
.............................................................
1853天前 翻译
138#翻译
When theres a conflict, extra URLconf parameters get precedence over captured parameters. In other
words, if your URLconf captures a named-group variable and an extra URLconf parameter includes a
variable with the same name, the extra URLconf parameter value will be used.
当冲突出现的时候,额外URLconf参数优先于捕捉值。也就是说,如果URLconf捕捉到的一个命名组变量和一个额外URLconf参数包含的变量同名时,额外URLconf参数的值会被使用。
316天前 翻译
139#翻译
For example, consider this URLconf:
例如,下面这个URLconf:
3564天前 翻译
142#翻译
Here, both the regular expression and the extra dictionary include an ``id`` . The hard-coded
``id`` gets precedence. That means any request (e.g., ``/mydata/2/`` or ``/mydata/432432/`` ) will
be treated as if ``id`` is set to ``3`` , regardless of the value captured in the URL.
这里,正则表达式和额外字典都包含了一个 ``id`` 。硬编码的(额外字典的) ``id`` 将优先使用。就是说任何请求(比如, ``/mydata/2/`` 或者 ``/mydata/432432/`` )都会作 ``id`` 设置为 ``3`` 对待,不管URL里面能捕捉到什么样的值。
3564天前 翻译
143#翻译
Astute readers will note that in this case, its a waste of time and typing to capture the ``id`` in
the regular expression, because its value will always be overridden by the dictionarys value. Thats
correct; we bring this up only to help you avoid making the mistake.
聪明的读者会发现在这种情况下,在正则表达式里面写上捕捉是浪费时间的,因为 ``id`` 的值总是会被字典中的值覆盖。没错,我们说这个的目的只是为了让你不要犯这样的错误。
3564天前 翻译
144#翻译
Using Default View Arguments
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
使用缺省视图参数
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
316天前 翻译
145#翻译
Another convenient trick is to specify default parameters for a views arguments. This tells the
view which value to use for a parameter by default if none is specified.
另外一个方便的特性是你可以给一个视图指定默认的参数。这样,当没有给这个参数赋值的时候将会使用默认的值。
317天前 翻译
146#翻译
Heres an example:
请看例子:
3567天前 翻译
149#翻译
Here, both URL patterns point to the same view ``views.page`` but the first pattern doesnt capture
anything from the URL. If the first pattern matches, the ``page()`` function will use its default
argument for ``num`` , ``"1"`` . If the second pattern matches, ``page()`` will use whatever
``num`` value was captured by the regular expression.
在这里,两个URL表达式都指向了同一个视图 ``views.page`` ,但是第一个表达式没有传递任何参数。如果匹配到了第一个样式, ``page()`` 函数将会对参数 ``num`` 使用默认值 ``"1"`` ,如果第二个表达式匹配成功, ``page()`` 函数将使用正则表达式传递过来的num的值。
316天前 翻译
150#翻译
Its common to use this technique in conjunction with configuration options, as explained earlier.
This example makes a slight improvement to the example in the Giving a View Configuration Options
section by providing a default value for ``template_name`` :
就像前面解释的一样,这种技术与配置选项的联用是很普遍的。以下这个例子比提供视图配置选项一节中的例子有些许的改进。它为 ``template_name`` 提供了一个默认值:
1850天前 翻译
153#翻译
Special-Casing Views
''''''''''''''''''''
特殊情况下的视图
''''''''''''''''''''
3560天前 翻译
154#翻译
Sometimes youll have a pattern in your URLconf that handles a large set of URLs, but youll need to
special-case one of them. In this case, take advantage of the linear way a URLconf is processed and
put the special case first.
有时你有一个模式来处理在你的URLconf中的一系列URL,但是有时候需要特别处理其中的某个URL。在这种情况下,要使用将URLconf中把特殊情况放在首位的线性处理方式 。
3551天前 翻译
155#翻译
For example, the add an object pages in Djangos admin site are represented by this URLconf line:
例如,Django的admin站点中添加一个对象页面是如下配置的: 
3560天前 翻译
158#翻译
This matches URLs such as ``/myblog/entries/add/`` and ``/auth/groups/add/`` . However, the add
page for a user object (``/auth/user/add/`` ) is a special case it doesnt display all of the form
fields, it displays two password fields, and so forth. We *could* solve this problem by
special-casing in the view, like so:
这将匹配像 ``/myblog/entries/add/`` 和 ``/auth/groups/add/`` 这样的URL 。然而,对于用户对象的添加页面( ``/auth/user/add/`` )是个特殊情况,因为它不会显示所有的表单域,它显示两个密码域等等。我们 *可以* 在视图中特别指出以解决这种情况:
3382天前 翻译
161#翻译
but thats inelegant for a reason weve touched on multiple times in this chapter: it puts URL logic
in the view. As a more elegant solution, we can take advantage of the fact that URLconfs are
processed in order from top to bottom:
不过,就如我们多次在这章提到的,这样做并不优雅:因为它把URL逻辑放在了视图中。更优雅的解决方法是,我们要利用URLconf从顶向下的解析顺序这个特点:
3560天前 翻译
164#翻译
With this in place, a request to ``/auth/user/add/`` will be handled by the ``user_add_stage``
view. Although that URL matches the second pattern, it matches the top one first. (This is
short-circuit logic.)
在这种情况下,象 ``/auth/user/add/`` 的请求将会被 ``user_add_stage`` 视图处理。尽管URL也匹配第二种模式,它会先匹配上面的模式。(这是短路逻辑。)
3559天前 翻译
165#翻译
Capturing Text in URLs
''''''''''''''''''''''
从URL中捕获文本
'''''''''''''''
3382天前 翻译
166#翻译
Each captured argument is sent to the view as a plain Python string, regardless of what sort of
match the regular expression makes. For example, in this URLconf line:
每个被捕获的参数将被作为纯Python字符串来发送,而不管正则表达式中的格式。举个例子,在这行URLConf中:
3560天前 翻译
169#翻译
the ``year`` argument to ``views.year_archive()`` will be a string, not an integer, even though
``\d{4}`` will only match integer strings.
尽管 ``\d{4}`` 将只匹配整数的字符串,但是参数 ``year`` 是作为字符串传至 ``views.year_archive()`` 的,而不是整型。
3374天前 翻译
170#翻译
This is important to keep in mind when youre writing view code. Many built-in Python functions are
fussy (and rightfully so) about accepting only objects of a certain type. A common error is to
attempt to create a ``datetime.date`` object with string values instead of integer values:
当你在写视图代码时记住这点很重要,许多Python内建的方法对于接受的对象的类型很讲究。一个典型的的错误就是用字符串值而不是整数值来创建 ``datetime.date`` 对象: 
3374天前 翻译
173#翻译
Translated to a URLconf and view, the error looks like this:
回到URLconf和视图处,错误看起来很可能是这样:
3560天前 翻译
176#翻译
Instead, ``day_archive()`` can be written correctly like this:
因此, ``day_archive()`` 应该这样写才是正确的:
3559天前 翻译
179#翻译
Note that ``int()`` itself raises a ``ValueError`` when you pass it a string that is not composed
solely of digits, but were avoiding that error in this case because the regular expression in our
URLconf has ensured that only strings containing digits are passed to the view function.
注意,当你传递了一个并不完全包含数字的字符串时, ``int()`` 会抛出 ``ValueError`` 的异常,不过我们已经避免了这个错误,因为在URLconf的正则表达式中已经确保只有包含数字的字符串才会传到这个视图函数中。
3559天前 翻译
180#翻译
Determining What the URLconf Searches Against
'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
决定URLconf搜索的东西
'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
3560天前 翻译
181#翻译
When a request comes in, Django tries to match the URLconf patterns against the requested URL, as a
normal Python string (not as a Unicode string). This does not include ``GET`` or ``POST``
parameters, or the domain name. It also does not include the leading slash, because every URL has a
leading slash.
当一个请求进来时,Django试着将请求的URL作为一个普通Python字符串进行URLconf模式匹配(而不是作为一个Unicode字符串)。这并不包括 ``GET`` 或 ``POST`` 参数或域名。它也不包括第一个斜杠,因为每个URL必定有一个斜杠。
3532天前 翻译
182#翻译
For example, in a request to ``http://www.example.com/myapp/`` , Django will try to match
``myapp/`` . In a request to ``http://www.example.com/myapp/?page=3`` , Django will try to match
``myapp/`` .
例如,在向 ``http://www.example.com/myapp/`` 的请求中,Django将试着去匹配 ``myapp/`` 。在向 ``http://www.example.com/myapp/?page=3`` 的请求中,Django同样会去匹配 ``myapp/`` 。
3382天前 翻译
183#翻译
The request method (e.g., ``POST`` , ``GET`` , ``HEAD`` ) is *not* taken into account when
traversing the URLconf. In other words, all request methods will be routed to the same function for
the same URL. Its the responsibility of a view function to perform branching based on request
method.
在解析URLconf时,请求方法(例如, ``POST`` , ``GET`` , ``HEAD`` )并 *不会* 被考虑。换而言之,对于相同的URL的所有请求方法将被导向到相同的函数中。因此根据请求方法来处理分支是视图函数的责任。
3532天前 翻译
184#翻译
Including Other URLconfs
````````````````````````
包含其他URLconf
````````````````````````
3560天前 翻译
185#翻译
If you intend your code to be used on multiple Django-based sites, you should consider arranging
your URLconfs in such a way that allows for including.
如果你试图让你的代码用在多个基于Django的站点上,你应该考虑将你的URLconf以包含的方式来处理。
3560天前 翻译
186#翻译
At any point, your URLconf can include other URLconf modules. This essentially roots a set of URLs
below other ones. For example, this URLconf includes other URLconfs:
在任何时候,你的URLconf都可以包含其他URLconf模块。对于根目录是基于一系列URL的站点来说,这是必要的。例如下面的,URLconf包含了其他URLConf:
3560天前 翻译
189#翻译
Theres an important gotcha here: the regular expressions in this example that point to an
``include()`` do *not* have a ``$`` (end-of-string match character) but *do* include a trailing
slash. Whenever Django encounters ``include()`` , it chops off whatever part of the URL matched up
to that point and sends the remaining string to the included URLconf for further processing.
这里有个很重要的地方:例子中的指向 ``include()`` 的正则表达式并 *不* 包含一个 ``$`` (字符串结尾匹配符),但是包含了一个斜杆。每当Django遇到 ``include()`` 时,它将截断匹配的URL,并把剩余的字符串发往包含的URLconf作进一步处理。
3422天前 翻译
190#翻译
Continuing this example, heres the URLconf ``mysite.blog.urls`` :
继续看这个例子,这里就是被包含的URLconf ``mysite.blog.urls`` :
3389天前 翻译
193#翻译
With these two URLconfs, heres how a few sample requests would be handled:
通过这两个URLconf,下面是一些处理请求的例子:
3560天前 翻译
194#翻译
*   ``/weblog/2007/`` : In the first URLconf, the pattern ``r'^weblog/'`` matches. Because it is an
    ``include()`` , Django strips all the matching text, which is ``'weblog/'`` in this case. The
    remaining part of the URL is ``2007/`` , which matches the first line in the
    ``mysite.blog.urls`` URLconf.
*   ``/weblog/2007/`` :在第一个URLconf中,模式 ``r'^weblog/'`` 被匹配。因为它是一个 ``include()`` ,Django将截掉所有匹配的文本,在这里是 ``'weblog/'`` 。URL剩余的部分是 ``2007/`` , 将在 ``mysite.blog.urls`` 这个URLconf的第一行中被匹配到。
3382天前 翻译
195#翻译
*   ``/weblog//2007/`` : In the first URLconf, the pattern ``r'^weblog/'`` matches. Because it is
    an ``include()`` , Django strips all the matching text, which is ``'weblog/'`` in this case.
    The remaining part of the URL is ``/2007/`` (with a leading slash), which does not match any of
    the lines in the ``mysite.blog.urls`` URLconf.
*   ``/weblog//2007/`` :在第一个URLconf中,模式 ``r'^weblog/'`` 被匹配。因为它是一个 ``include()`` ,Django将截掉所有匹配的文本,在这里是 ``'weblog/'`` 。URL剩余的部分是 ``/2007/`` (开头有一个斜杠),将不会匹配 ``mysite.blog.urls`` 中的任何URLconf。
3382天前 翻译
196#翻译
*   ``/about/`` : This matches the view ``mysite.views.about`` in the first URLconf, demonstrating
    that you can mix ``include()`` patterns with non-``include()`` patterns.
*   ``/about/`` : 这个匹配第一个URLconf中的 ``mysite.views.about`` 视图。只是为了示范你可以混合 ``include()`` patterns和 non-``include()`` patterns在一起使用。
3382天前 翻译
197#翻译
How Captured Parameters Work with include()
'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
捕获的参数如何和include()协同工作
'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
3382天前 翻译
198#翻译
An included URLconf receives any captured parameters from parent URLconfs, for example:
一个被包含的URLconf接收任何来自parent URLconfs的被捕获的参数,比如:
3382天前 翻译
201#翻译
In this example, the captured ``username`` variable is passed to the included URLconf and, hence,
to *every* view function within that URLconf.
在这个例子中,被捕获的 ``username`` 变量将传递给被包含的 URLconf,进而传递给那个URLconf中的 *每一个* 视图函数。
3382天前 翻译
202#翻译
Note that the captured parameters will *always* be passed to *every* line in the included URLconf,
regardless of whether the lines view actually accepts those parameters as valid. For this reason,
this technique is useful only if youre certain that every view in the included URLconf accepts the
parameters youre passing.
注意,这个被捕获的参数 *总是* 传递到被包含的URLconf中的 *每一* 行,不管那些行对应的视图是否需要这些参数。因此,这个技术只有在你确实需要那个被传递的参数的时候才显得有用。
3382天前 翻译
203#翻译
How Extra URLconf Options Work with include()
'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
额外的URLconf如何和include()协同工作
'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
3560天前 翻译
204#翻译
Similarly, you can pass extra URLconf options to ``include()`` , just as you can pass extra URLconf
options to a normal view as a dictionary. When you do this, *each* line in the included URLconf
will be passed the extra options.
相似的,你可以传递额外的URLconf选项到 ``include()`` , 就像你可以通过字典传递额外的URLconf选项到普通的视图。当你这样做的时候,被包含URLconf的 *每一* 行都会收到那些额外的参数。
3382天前 翻译
205#翻译
For example, the following two URLconf sets are functionally identical.
比如,下面的两个URLconf在功能上是相等的。
3560天前 翻译
206#翻译
Set one:
第一个:
3560天前 翻译
209#翻译
Set two:
第二个
3560天前 翻译
212#翻译
As is the case with captured parameters (explained in the previous section), extra options will
*always* be passed to *every* line in the included URLconf, regardless of whether the lines view
actually accepts those options as valid. For this reason, this technique is useful only if youre
certain that every view in the included URLconf accepts the extra options youre passing.
这个例子和前面关于被捕获的参数一样(在上一节就解释过这一点),额外的选项将 *总是* 被传递到被包含的URLconf中的 *每一* 行,不管那一行对应的视图是否确实作为有效参数接收这些选项,因此,这个技术只有在你确实需要那个被传递的额外参数的时候才显得有用。
3382天前 翻译
213#翻译
Whats Next?
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接下来?
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3560天前 翻译
214#翻译
One of Djangos main goals is to reduce the amount of code developers need to write, and in this
chapter we suggested how to cut down the code of your views and URLconfs.
Django的主要目标之一就是减少开发者的代码输入量,并且在这一章中我们建议如何减少你的视图和URLconf的代码量。
3382天前 翻译
215#翻译
The next logical step in code elimination is removing the need to write views entirely. Thats the
topic of the next chapter.
为了减少代码量,下一个合理步骤就是如何避免全部手工书写视图代码,这就是下一章的主题。
3382天前 翻译