The Django Book

Appendix G: The django-admin Utility

附录G 管理实用工具 is Djangos command-line utility for administrative tasks. This appendix explains its many powers. 是Django管理任务的命令行工具。本附录简述它的多个特性。

Youll usually access through a projects wrapper. is automatically created in each Django project and is a thin wrapper around . It takes care of two things for you before delegating to :

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  • It puts your projects package on sys.path .

  • 将你项目所在路径加入 sys.path .

  • It sets the DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE environment variable so that it points to your projects file.

  • 设置环境变量 DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE , 使其指向你项目中的

The script should be on your system path if you installed Django via its utility. If its not on your path, you can find it in site-packages/django/bin within your Python installation. Consider symlinking it from some place on your path, such as /usr/local/bin .

如果你是使用 来安装Django的,那么 应该已经在你的系统路径中了. 如果没有,你可以在你python安装路径下的 site-packages/django/bin 中找到它. 可以在某个系统路径上建立一个指向该文件的符号链接,如在 /usr/local/bin

Windows users, who do not have symlinking functionality available, can copy to a location on their existing path or edit the PATH settings (under Settings ~TRA Control Panel ~TRA System ~TRA Advanced ~TRA Environment) to point to its installed location.

对于不能建立符号链接的Windows用户, 可以把 拷贝到环境变量 PATH 对应的某个目录中,或者编辑环境变量 PATH (在控制面板->系统->高级->环境变量), 添加 所在路径.

Generally, when working on a single Django project, its easier to use . Use with DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE or the --settings command-line option, if you need to switch between multiple Django settings files.

一般来说,在单一的Django项目中,使用 比较方便。如果需要在多个Django 项目(setting files)中切换,可以使用 , 结合环境变量 DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE 或选项 --settings

The command-line examples throughout this appendix use to be consistent, but any example can use just as well.

为保持一致,在本附录中的例子中均使用 , 所有例子都可以换用



The basic usage is:

基本用法如下: action [options]


或者: action [options]

action should be one of the actions listed in this document. options , which is optional, should be zero or more of the options listed in this document.

其中 action 是稍后给出的 action 列表中的一个, options 为可选项,可以留空或者是稍后给出的 options 列表中的一个

Run --help to display a help message that includes a terse list of all available actions and options.

运行 --help 可以看到帮助信息,其中带有精简的 action 和 option 列表

Most actions take a list of app names. An app name is the base name of the package containing your models. For example, if your INSTALLED_APPS contains the string '' , the app name is blog .

多数 action 接受 app name 的列表为参数, app name 是指包含你各个模块的包的 base name。 比方说,如果你的环境变量 INSTALLED_APPS 中含有 '' , 那么app name就是 blog .

Available Actions

可选的 action

The following sections cover the actions available to you.


adminindex [appname appname ]

adminindex [appname appname ]

Prints the admin-index template snippet for the given application names. Use admin-index template snippets if you want to customize the look and feel of your admins index page.


createcachetable [tablename]

createcachetable [tablename] 新增快取資料表[表的名稱]

Creates a cache table named tablename for use with the database cache back-end. See Chapter 13 for more about caching.

为数据库缓存后台创建名为 tablename 的缓存表,详见第13章关于缓存的部分


dbshell 對資料庫下指令的shell

Runs the command-line client for the database engine specified in your DATABASE_ENGINE setting, with the connection parameters specified in the settings DATABASE_USER , DATABASE_PASSWORD , and so forth.

为你在`DATABASE_ENGINE` 中定义的数据库运行一个命令行客户端。连接所需要的参数定义在`DATABASE_USER`` , ``DATABASE_PASSWORD``中。如下。

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  • For PostgreSQL, this runs the psql command-line client.

  • 对于 PostgreSQL, 它运行``psql`` 命令

  • For MySQL, this runs the mysql command-line client.

  • 对于 MySQL, 它运行``mysql`` 命令

  • For SQLite, this runs the sqlite3 command-line client.

  • 对于SQLite, 它运行``sqlite3`` 命令

This command assumes the programs are on your PATH so that a simple call to the program name (psql , mysql , or sqlite3 ) will find the program in the right place. Theres no way to specify the location of the program manually.

这个命令假设这些程序都在你的``PATH``中,所以只要简单的调用程序名(psql , mysql , 或 sqlite3 )就可以找到它们。无法手工定义这些程序的位置。



Displays differences between the current settings file and Djangos default settings.


Settings that dont appear in the defaults are followed by "###" . For example, the default settings dont define ROOT_URLCONF , so ROOT_URLCONF is followed by "###" in the output of diffsettings .


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Note that Djangos default settings live in django.conf.global_settings , if youre ever curious to see the full list of defaults.

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dumpdata [appname appname ]

dumpdata [appname appname ] 將某個應用程式的資料下載回來

Outputs to standard output all data in the database associated with the named application(s).


By default, the database will be dumped in JSON format. If you want the output to be in another format, use the --format option (e.g., format=xml ). You may specify any Django serialization back-end (including any user-specified serialization back-ends named in the SERIALIZATION_MODULES setting). The --indent option can be used to pretty-print the output.

默认的,数据库会被导出为JSON格式。如果你导出其它格式,使用``—format``选项( 例如,``format=xml`` )。你可以指定任何Django序例后端(包括任何用户自定义的序例后端 ,定义在``SERIALIZATION_MODULES``中 ). --indent 选项,用来更优美的显示输出.

If no application name is provided, all installed applications will be dumped.


The output of dumpdata can be used as input for loaddata .


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Returns the database to the state it was in immediately after syncdb was executed. This means that all data will be removed from the database, any postsynchronization handlers will be re-executed, and the initial_data fixture will be reinstalled.

讓資料庫回到一個初始狀況,約是在syncdb 被執行之後。這表示所有資料將從資料裏被移除,任何postsynchronization 處理將會被再處理。然後初始資料將會再被寫入一次。



Introspects the database tables in the database pointed to by the DATABASE_NAME setting and outputs a Django model module (a file) to standard output.

將所有的資料表指出來,按你指名的資料庫名稱設定,輸出一個Django 模型的模組。(a ````檔) 到標準的輸出。

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Use this if you have a legacy database with which youd like to use Django. The script will inspect the database and create a model for each table within it.


As you might expect, the created models will have an attribute for every field in the table. Note that inspectdb has a few special cases in its field name output:


  • If inspectdb cannot map a columns type to a model field type, it will use TextField and will insert the Python comment 'This field type is a guess.' next to the field in the generated model.

假如inspectdb不能標定行的型別和模型裏欄位的型別,它將用TextField,然後寫入一個Python 註解,這欄位型別我是用猜的。在這生成的模型的欄位旁邊

  • If the database column name is a Python reserved word (such as 'pass' , 'class' , or 'for' ), inspectdb will append '_field' to the attribute name. For example, if a table has a column 'for' , the generated model will have a field 'for_field' , with the db_column attribute set to 'for' . inspectdb will insert the Python comment 'Field renamed because it was a Python reserved word.' next to the field.

假如資料庫的欄位名稱是Python的保留字(如 pass,class,for),那inspectdb會加上_field到這個性質名稱的後面。例如,假如一個表有一個欄位叫做for,這產生的模型就會有一個欄位叫做for_field,對應到db_column的性質是for,inspectdb將會填入Python註解,欄位被改名字了,因為這是Python的保留字。加上旁邊

This feature is meant as a shortcut, not as definitive model generation. After you run it, youll want to look over the generated models yourself to make customizations. In particular, youll need to rearrange the models so that models with relationships are ordered properly.


Primary keys are automatically introspected for PostgreSQL, MySQL, and SQLite, in which case Django puts in the primary_key=True where needed.

主鍵值是自動偵測的,對PostgreSQL, MySQL, and SQLite,在這種情況下,Django 會視需要將這些設定設為primary_key=True。

inspectdb works with PostgreSQL, MySQL, and SQLite. Foreign key detection only works in PostgreSQL and with certain types of MySQL tables.

inspectdb,在連上PostgreSQL, MySQL, and SQLite時,外鍵偵測只做用在PostgreSQL 及MySQL 資料表裏的某些特定型態!

loaddata [fixture fixture ]

載入數據【填補 填充】

Searches for and loads the contents of the named fixture into the database.


A fixture is a collection of files that contain the serialized contents of the database. Each fixture has a unique name; however, the files that comprise the fixture can be distributed over multiple directories, in multiple applications.


Django will search in three locations for fixtures:

Django 會找關於填補的三個地方:

  • In the fixtures directory of every installed application


  • In any directory named in the FIXTURE_DIRS setting


  • In the literal path named by the fixture


Django will load any and all fixtures it finds in these locations that match the provided fixture names.

Django 將載入所有的填補,在這些位置裏被發現到,且符合所提供的填補的名字。

If the named fixture has a file extension, only fixtures of that type will be loaded. For example, the following:

假如 已命名的填補有一個副檔名,只有格式對的填補會被載入。例如下列 loaddata mydata.json

will only load JSON fixtures called mydata . The fixture extension must correspond to the registered name of a serializer (e.g., json or xml ).

將只會載入JSON 填補叫做mydata。這個填補的延伸符合這序列子登錄的名稱(例如json或xml)

If you omit the extension, Django will search all available fixture types for a matching fixture. For example, the following:

假如你省略這個副檔名,Django 將尋找所有的可能的填補型態,對於一個符合的填補。例如,下列 loaddata mydata

will look for any fixture of any fixture type called mydata . If a fixture directory contained mydata.json , that fixture would be loaded as a JSON fixture. However, if two fixtures with the same name but different fixture types are discovered (e.g., if mydata.json and mydata.xml were found in the same fixture directory), fixture installation will be aborted, and any data installed in the call to loaddata will be removed from the database.

將會尋找任何填補命名為mydata。假如一個填補的目錄夾有一個mydata.json。這個填補將被載入用, JSON的方式。然而,假如兩個填補取一樣的名字,但有不一樣的填補副檔名,如(mydata.json` and ``mydata.xml在同一個目錄下被發現),填補的安裝動作將會取消,然後其他的已安裝數據在loaddata呼叫時,將會從數據庫被移除掉。

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The fixtures that are named can include directory components. These directories will be included in the search path. The following, for example:

已命名的填補可以包含子目錄,這些目錄將被 包含進搜尋的路徑裏。如下,舉例 loaddata foo/bar/mydata.json

will search <appname>/fixtures/foo/bar/mydata.json for each installed application, <dirname>/foo/bar/mydata.json for each directory in FIXTURE_DIRS , and the literal path foo/bar/mydata.json .

上面的语句将会查询每一个已经安装的应用的``<appname>/fixtures/foo/bar/mydata.json`` ,``FIXTURE_DIRS`` 中的每一个``<dirname>/foo/bar/mydata.json`` ,以及原义路径``foo/bar/mydata.json`` 的值

Note that the order in which fixture files are processed is undefined. However, all fixture data is installed as a single transaction, so data in one fixture can reference data in another fixture. If the database back-end supports row-level constraints, these constraints will be checked at the end of the transaction.

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The dumpdata command can be used to generate input for loaddata .

MySQL and Fixtures

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Unfortunately, MySQL isnt capable of completely supporting all the features of Django fixtures. If you use MyISAM tables, MySQL doesnt support transactions or constraints, so you wont get a rollback if multiple transaction files are found, or validation of fixture data. If you use InnoDB tables, you wont be able to have any forward references in your data files MySQL doesnt provide a mechanism to defer checking of row constraints until a transaction is committed.

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reset [appname appname ]

Executes the equivalent of sqlreset for the given app names.


runfcgi [options]

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Starts a set of FastCGI processes suitable for use with any Web server that supports the FastCGI protocol. See Chapter 20 for more about deploying under FastCGI.

This command requires the Python FastCGI module from flup (


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runserver [optional port number, or ipaddr:port]

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Starts a lightweight development Web server on the local machine. By default, the server runs on port 8000 on the IP address You can pass in an IP address and port number explicitly.


If you run this script as a user with normal privileges (recommended), you might not have access to start a port on a low port number. Low port numbers are reserved for the superuser (root).




Do not use this server in a production setting . It has not gone through security audits or performance tests, and there are no plans to change that fact. Djangos developers are in the business of making Web frameworks, not Web servers, so improving this server to be able to handle a production environment is outside the scope of Django.

不要在最终产品中使用该服务器 . 该服务器没有通过安全与性能测试,并且也不打算通过。Django开发者的主要任务是制作web框架,而不是web服务器,改进该服务器使之可以在最终产品中应用超出了Django的范围。

The development server automatically reloads Python code for each request, as needed. You dont need to restart the server for code changes to take effect.


When you start the server, and each time you change Python code while the server is running, the server will validate all of your installed models. (See the upcoming section on the validate command.) If the validator finds errors, it will print them to standard output, but it wont stop the server.

该服务器启动后,在服务器运行的同时更改Python代码时,该服务器会验证你安装的所有模块(参考马上就要讲到的 validate 命令). 如果发现错误,服务器会把它们输出到标准输出,但是服务器并不会停止。

You can run as many servers as you want, as long as theyre on separate ports. Just execute runserver more than once.

你可以同时运行许多个服务器实例,只要它们各自监听不同的端口。要运行多个服务器实例,只要多次执行 runserver 就可以了。

Note that the default IP address,, is not accessible from other machines on your network. To make your development server viewable to other machines on the network, use its own IP address (e.g., or

值得一提的是默认的IP地址 无法从网络上的其他机器访问到,要使服务器可以被网络中的其他服务器访问到,使用真实IP地址(例如192.168.2.1)或者0.0.0.0

For example, to run the server on port 7000 on IP address, use this:

例如,要在127.0.0.1的7000端口运行该服务器,使用如下方法: runserver 7000

Or to run the server on port 7000 on IP address, use this:

或者在IP地址1.2.3.4的7000端口运行,使用: runserver
Serving Static Files with the Development Server

By default, the development server doesnt serve any static files for your site (such as CSS files, images, things under MEDIA_ROOT_URL , etc.). If you want to configure Django to serve static media, read about serving static media at


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Turning Off Autoreload

To disable autoreloading of code while the development server is running, use the --noreload option, like so:

在开发服务器运行情况下,如果要关闭代码自动载入,用 --noreload 选项, 像这样: runserver --noreload


Starts the Python interactive interpreter.


Django will use IPython ( if its installed. If you have IPython installed and want to force use of the plain Python interpreter, use the --plain option, like so:

Django将使用IPython(如果已经安装了IPython)。如果应经安装了IPython,但是想使用平常的Python解释器,可以使用’‘—plain’‘选项,就像这样: shell --plain

sql [appname appname ]

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Prints the CREATE TABLE SQL statements for the given app names.

为指定应用名称打印“CREATE TABLE” 的sql声明。

sqlall [appname appname ]

Prints the CREATE TABLE and initial-data SQL statements for the given app names.

为指定应用名称打印“CREATE TABLE”和初始化数据的sql声明。

Refer to the description of sqlcustom for an explanation of how to specify initial data.


sqlclear [appname appname ]

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Prints the DROP TABLE SQL statements for the given app names.

为给定的应用名打印``DROP TABLE``SQL语句。

sqlcustom [appname appname ]

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Prints the custom SQL statements for the given app names.


For each model in each specified app, this command looks for the file <appname>/sql/<modelname>.sql , where <appname> is the given app name and <modelname> is the models name in lowercase. For example, if you have an app news that includes a Story model, sqlcustom will attempt to read a file news/sql/story.sql and append it to the output of this command.


Each of the SQL files, if given, is expected to contain valid SQL. The SQL files are piped directly into the database after all of the models table-creation statements have been executed. Use this SQL hook to make any table modifications, or insert any SQL functions into the database.


Note that the order in which the SQL files are processed is undefined.


sqlindexes [appname appname ]

sqlindexes [appname appname ]

Prints the CREATE INDEX SQL statements for the given app names.

为给定的应用名打印 CREATE INDEX SQL 语句.

sqlreset [appname appname ]

sqlreset [appname appname ]

Prints the DROP TABLE SQL, and then the CREATE TABLE SQL, for the given app names.

对给定的应用名,打印``DROP TABLE``SQL语句,然后是``CREATE TABLE``SQL语句。

sqlsequencereset [appname appname ]

sqlsequencereset [appname appname ]

Prints the SQL statements for resetting sequences for the given app names.


Youll need this SQL only if youre using PostgreSQL and have inserted data by hand. When you do that, PostgreSQLs primary key sequences can get out of sync from whats in the database, and the SQL emitted by this command will clear it up.


startapp [appname]

Creates a Django application directory structure for the given app name in the current directory.


startproject [projectname]

Creates a Django project directory structure for the given project name in the current directory.



Creates the database tables for all applications in INSTALLED_APPS whose tables have not already been created.


Use this command when youve added new applications to your project and want to install them in the database. This includes any applications shipped with Django that might be in INSTALLED_APPS by default. When you start a new project, run this command to install the default applications.



If youre installing the django.contrib.auth application, syncdb will give you the option of creating a superuser immediately. syncdb will also search for and install any fixture named initial_data . See the documentation for loaddata for details on the specification of fixture data files.

如果你正在安装“django.contrib.auth”应用,“syncdb”将会给出立即创建超级用户的选项。“syncdb”也将会搜索并安装任何命名为“initial_data”的夹具 。关于夹具数据文件的规范参见“loaddata”文档。


测试 。。。。

Discovers and runs tests for all installed models. Testing was still under development when this book was being written, so to learn more youll need to read the documentation online at

为所有已安装模型发现和执行测试。当写作本书时测试工作仍然处于开发阶段,因此想了解更多你需要阅读在线文档:`` 。



Validates all installed models (according to the INSTALLED_APPS setting) and prints validation errors to standard output.

根据 INSTALLED_APPS 的设置值, 验证所有的安装模块, 并将 验证错误打印到标准输出上.

Available Options


The sections that follow outline the options that can take.

下面的这些节将会列举 工具可以带的各个选项.



Example usage:

示例用法: syncdb --settings=mysite.settings

Explicitly specifies the settings module to use. The settings module should be in Python package syntax (e.g., mysite.settings ). If this isnt provided, will use the DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE environment variable.

显示地指定所用的设置模块。该设置模块应该遵循 Python包语法(例如,“mysite.settings”)。如果不指定,“”将会使用环境变量“DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE”。

Note that this option is unnecessary in , because it takes care of setting DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE for you.

注意这个选项在 中不是必须的, 因为它负责为您设定``DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE`` .



Example usage:

示例用法: syncdb --pythonpath='/home/djangoprojects/myproject'

Adds the given filesystem path to the Python import search path. If this isnt provided, will use the PYTHONPATH environment variable.

添加给定路径到Python的导入搜索路径. 如果没有提供, 将使用 PYTHONPATH 环境变量.

Note that this option is unnecessary in , because it takes care of setting the Python path for you.

注意, 这个选项在 中不是必须的, 因它负责为您设定Python路径.



Example usage:

示例用法: dumpdata --format=xml

Specifies the output format that will be used. The name provided must be the name of a registered serializer.

指定一个要使用的输出格式. 提供的名字必须是一个注册的serializer的名字.


Displays a help message that includes a terse list of all available actions and options.




Example usage:

示例用法: dumpdata --indent=4

Specifies the number of spaces that will be used for indentation when pretty-printing output. By default, output will not be pretty-printed. Pretty-printing will only be enabled if the indent option is provided.



Indicates you will not be prompted for any input. This is useful if the django-admin script will be executed as an unattended, automated script.



Disables the use of the autoreloader when running the development server.

当运行开发服务器的时候, 禁止使用自动加载器.


Displays the current Django version.


Example output:


0.9.1 (SVN)


Example usage:

示例用法: syncdb --verbosity=2

Determines the amount of notification and debug information that will be printed to the console. 0 is no output, 1 is normal output, and 2 is verbose output.



Example usage:

示例用法: --adminmedia=/tmp/new-admin-style/

Tells Django where to find the various CSS and JavaScript files for the admin interface when running the development server. Normally these files are served out of the Django source tree, but because some designers customize these files for their site, this option allows you to test against custom versions.


Copyright 2006 Adrian Holovaty and Jacob Kaplan-Moss.
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